The four Vedas – Saama Veda

The word “Saama” is derived from the Sanskrit root “साम” which means to “appease”, “soothe”, “calm”, comfort”, “conciliate”. The word

Saama Veda Murthy

Saama” therefore means “that which soothes and relaxes the mind and promises peace.

The Saama Veda contains “Riks” i.e. verses/shlokas from the Rig Veda set to music. In chanting the Rig Veda one would chant the mantras with the udaatta (upward swara) and the anudhaatta (downward swara). In chanting the Saama Veda the same “Rik” would be “sung” with an elongated swara.

The Saama Veda / Saama Gaana is considered to be the source of the Sapta (seven) Swaras (notes) of Indian Classical Music. In Yajnas, one designated priest called the “Udgaata” who chants the Saama Veda to propitiate the Gods and ensure their grace.

The musical rendition and the elongated notes when chanted in sequence and with the proper diction has a calming influence on the mind and is extremely conducive to the spiritual evolution of the self – It is because of this virtue of the Saama Veda, that Shri Krishna declared in the Bhagavad Gita “Amongst the Vedas, I am Saama Veda“.

In the Lalitha Sahasranaama Stotra, which literally means the “1,000 names of the divine mother” one of the names given to her is “Saama-Gaana-Priya” – “She who is pleased/propitiated by the recitation of Saama Veda

Watch the YouTube video below showing the brain activity of a 26 year old man, while listening to Saama Veda chanting with his eyes closed [Red indicates brain activation and Blue indicates deactivation] – it is interesting to note how, even with eyes closed, the Visual Cortex lights up


  1. Brain activity video: (
  2. Deivathin Kural Volume-2; Vanathi Publications; 2016 edition/Reprint
  3. The Vedas – Sri Chandrashekarendra Saraswathi; Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan; 2014.
  4. Sama Veda Murthy:

Disclaimer: Copyright with regard to images / videos rests with the owner/creator and are not being used for any commercial purpose.

Akrura’s hymn to Krishna (10)

This will be the last post in this series on Krishna. This post draws from Chapter-40; Skandha-10 of the Bhagavata in which Akrura (who is actually an envoy of Kamsa) realizes Krishna’s true nature and then composes a hymn extempore, revealing to the world the true nature of Krishna. These verses clearly show that Krishna is that indwelling atman, spirit, soul within each individual – that which pervades and invades every sentient and insentient being in the Universe.

Below is a free translation of a few select verses (the operative word is “FREE”)

  1. You are that primordial being, the Purusha from whom everything has evolved and into whom everything subsides
  2. The elements – earth, water, fire, sky, air, and space are but parts of your being
  3. You are pure and transcendent, not bound by even Prakriti and therefore unattainable through the intellect but easily grasped when the seeker submits to your will.
  4. Those who have developed the highest spiritual insight realize “YOU” as “YOURSELF” as that one Lord and Universal being
  5. Those who need the help of symbols worship you as that indweller in either the body, nature, or Devas
  6. Those who see everything as manifestations of  your supreme Maya serve YOU through the SERVICE of fellow beings
  7. Those devoted to the rituals of the Vedas see you in the fire of their yagnas
  8. Those who attain you through a Quantum leap in Jnana (knowledge) drop everything and adore you as the all pervading Supreme
  9. Just as all rivers fed by rain wander into the ocean, so also do all paths lead to YOU and YOU alone.
  10. Each one has come from you and remain strung together like the beads of a necklace – separate yet interdependent; interdependent yet held together by you
  11. Salutations to you, who are all of this but still remain a witness to this play, unattached and pristine
  12. Salutations to you who are Pure Consciousness beyond the grasp of Time, Karma, and Nature, infinite and inscrutable
  13. Protect me for I have surrendered myself to thee…

Cluster of 12 blossoms – द्वादशमञ्जरिका (12) – Sankara highlights the inscrutable power of maya (illusion)

The word maya often used in Sanatana Dharma is translated as “Illusion” in the English language – this is an incomplete translation. As with most words in Sanskrit, a word used in a particular context can have one import/meaning in that context and another completely or subtly different import/meaning in a different context. The word “Illusion” for Maya best describes Buddhism and its concept of “Maya-Vaada” (the doctrine of illusion) which is the foundational basis of Buddhism – the theory of “shunya” or “negation” or “voiding” (emptying) of all that is material and worldly, and the entering of a state of calmness – in this limited sense, Buddhism could be called an atheistic-agnostic sect.

The Maya of Sanatana Dharma can be better described as a “veiling-power” or the inscrutable power of the divinity inside each individual – where each person is “potentially divine” (Swami Vivekananda) but he/she is separated from his/her own reality by a veil of illusion which needs to be removed for the divinity to shine forth.

There is a story in the Srimad Bhagavata which illustrates the power of Maya. Once Sage Narada and Sri Krishna went out for a walk in Dwarka. Narada kept asking Krishna about the power of Maya. Krishna was initially reluctant but Narada being Narada, was adamant. By this time they  had wandered a long way from the palace. Krishna sat down under a tree and then spoke to Narada “Friend, I will tell you what Maya is, but I am very thirsty, could you first get me a glass of water from that little hut there across the fields?” “Right Away” said Narada and set out across the fields. It was a hot summer day and soon he was exhausted and thirsty himself -he decided that he would ask for two glasses of water instead of one.

He reached the edge of the village and knocked on the door of the first house. The door opened and there stood before him the most beautiful girl he had ever seen. Something happened to Narada that had never happened to him before and instead of asking for water he blurted out “Will you marry me?” The couple settled down to a life of conjugal and connubial bliss. They soon had children who were enrolled into the nearest Gurukula (school). Narada worked hard to provide for the family. His days were busy in tilling the land he owned, working at the shop he had set up, and spending the evening with his wife. Soon he became the richest merchant of that village. His children came back from Gurukula, got married and had children. Narada now had grandchildren with whom he and his wife played everyday. He became the patriarch of his family and the headman of the village. One day while sitting in the courtyard of his house he turned to his wife and said “Isn’t this the greatest thing on earth? Watching your grandchildren play?”

Then one day it rained, and rained, and then rained and the river became flooded – it burst across the embankments and washed everything in its wake, away… Narada watched horrified as his wife, sons, daughters, grandchildren, his shop, cattle, the crops and everything he held dear was washed away in the blink of an eye. He screamed “Krishna! Krishna! Krishna!…”

Krishna gently shook Narada awake, smiled and asked him “Have you had your experience of Maya?” Narada saw that he was lying next to Krishna under the same tree and everything that he had experienced was a dream…

In these two shlokas discussed here, Sankara asks us to ponder on how ephemeral and volatile this life is – he says “That which you call your own, that which you take pride in, that for which you give up your today in the fond hope of a better tomorrow, can disappear in the blink of an eye…”

The shlokas, transliteration, and translation below:

वयसि गते कः कामविकारः
शुष्के नीरे कः कासारः ।
क्षीणे वित्ते कः परिवारः
ज्ञाते तत्त्वे कः संसारः ॥
Vayasi Gathe Kaha-Kaama-vikaaraha
Shuske Neere Kaha-Kasaraha
Ksheene Vitthe Kaha-Parivaraha
Nyathe Tattve Kaha-Samsaraha

मा कुरु धनजनयौवनगर्वं
हरति निमेषात्कालः सर्वम् ।
मायामयमिदमखिलं हित्वा var बुध्वा
ब्रह्मपदं त्वं प्रविश विदित्वा ॥
Maa Kuru Dhana-Jana-Yauvana-Garvam
Maya-mayam-idham-Akhilam Hithva
Brahma-padam Tvam Pravisha Vidithva

वयसि (Age) गते (Fled) कः काम (Desire, Passion) विकारः (Malady, Excitement, Contortion)
शुष्के (Dried-up, Shrivelled) नीरे (Water) कः कासारः (Pond, Pool)
क्षीणे (Lost, Emaciated, decayed) वित्ते (Wealth, Gained, Acquired) कः परिवारः (Family, Relatives)
ज्ञाते (Known, Ascertained, Understood) तत्त्वे (Philosophy, Truth) कः संसारः (World)॥

मा कुरु धन (Wealth) जन (People, Friends) यौवन (Youth, Beauty) गर्वं (Pride, Arrogance)
हरति (Flees, Gone) निमेषा (In a second, Blink) त्कालः (Time, Moment) सर्वम् (Entire, All)
मायामयमिदमखिलं  हित्वा (Illusory everything in this world)
ब्रह्मपदं (Brahman, Truth, That path of self-realization) त्वं प्रविश (Engaged in, Entered into, Begun) विदित्वा (Known, Learned, Knowledge, Information)

When your youth is gone, what use is this wealth, you have acquired? Why this ceaseless desire even now? Of what use is a dried-up, parched pond? Where are your relatives now that your wealth is gone? Where is this World when the supreme truth is realized in the heart of your being?

Boast not of your wealth, your friends, your beauty and youth. Remember, all of this will be gone in the blink of an eye. Can’t you see how illusory they are – with you today, with someone yesterday, and with someone else tomorrow. Give up this illusion and enter into the divine nature of your own self and understand the timeless truth of your true nature

Cluster of 12 blossoms – द्वादशमञ्जरिका (11) – Sankara gives us the code to happiness & peace

In this, the 10th shloka Sankara gives us the code to happiness and peace. This shloka also has a unique Construction – the last word of the previous line becomes the first word of the succeeding line forming a sequential chain of words that runs like this: 1-2; 2-3; 3-4; 4-5. This constructional elegance would be impossible in the English language and dare I say in any other language. This stanza is testimony not just to Sankara’s mastery of Sanskrit but also an example of the dexterity and beauty of the Sanskrit language.

There is an old story in the Srimad Bhagavata called “The Churning of the Ocean of Milk – Samudra Manthan” – a story that has been the subject of much derision and ridicule by even Hindus without understanding the deep allegorical significance of the story. This story is particularly relevant to this shloka:

This story is set at a time when the Asuras (the dark forces) are in the ascendancy and the Devas (forces of good) are on the decline. The Devas and Asuras both dwell within each one of us as the good/noble versus bad/evil tendencies. Vishnu the Atman/Soul tells the Devas that if they want to get the upper hand then they must churn the “ocean of milk” which refers to our mind/brain in order to get the Amrita (Nectar) of immortality i.e. self-realization/realization of the supreme truth. Vishnu the atman, advises the Devas that initially they have no choice but to have the Asuras also as their allies in the churning and then slowly get rid of them later. The Atman (Vishnu) further advises them to use Mandara mountain as the churning rod and Vasuki the serpent as the rope that would help in turning the rod of Mandara. Mandara here (in my opinion) is a reference to Spinal Cord-Brain where it is believed all spiritual activity/growth occurs – where the 7 notional Chakras or seats of higher consciousness are located. Vasuki again in my opinion represents the nerve plexus‘ that “snake” around the spinal cord and direct the outward action and inner perceptions of our sense organs and their associated centers of perception – and these can be brought under control through the practice of pranayama (special breathing techniques), pratyahara (withdrawal), and meditation. He finally tells them to repose faith in him – the atman/soul and that he would guide them through the entire process provided they didn’t give up and pushed on towards their ultimate goal.

The Asuras and the Devas begin the churning process – initially wild and dangerous animals float to the surface, a reference here to the emergence of our vilest and basest thoughts embedded deep in our psyche. After a brief pleasant period (which is also typical of the meditational process), there emerges the vicious poison Halahala or Kalakuta that threatens to choke and destroy the Devas and Asuras – again an allegorical reference to the great himalayan wall one must surmount to get to the other side. The Devas and Asuras turn to Shiva (the willpower) he who had burnt all desires and applied the ash on his body as Samba-Siva. Shiva swallows the poison a reference to the assertion of the human will essential to sustain progress. After this emerge several pleasant things – a reference here to Siddhis or powers which also need to be rejected before finally emerges Amrita (Nectar). Vishnu, the atman through the veiling power of his maya in the form of Mohini leads the Asuras away and the Devas finally realize the true nature of their own selves – the nectar of their own divinity…

Now to the shloka, transliteration, translation, and purport:

सत्सङ्गत्वे निस्सङ्गत्वं
निस्सङ्गत्वे निर्मोहत्वम् ।
निर्मोहत्वे निश्चलतत्त्वं
निश्चलतत्त्वे जीवन्मुक्तिः ॥
Satsangatve Nis-sangatvam
Nis-sangatve Nir-mohatvam
Nishchalatve Jeevan-muktihi

सत्सङ्गत्वे (Associating with that which is good) निस्सङ्गत्वं (leads to dissociation with that which is bad). निस्सङ्गत्वे (Dissociation, Detachment) निर्मोहत्वम् (Clarity, Free from delusion). निर्मोहत्वे (Clarity) निश्चलतत्त्वं (Steady, Firm, Immovable) निश्चलतत्त्वे (Firm, Immovable) जीवन्मुक्तिः (Freedom, Realization)

When you associate with that which is good; you dissociate yourself from that which is bad/harmful to you. This dissociation/detachment leads you to clarity and frees you from delusion. Clarity breeds a steady, firm immovable resolve that opens the door to Freedom and peace, right here in this very life...”

Cluster of 12 blossoms – द्वादशमञ्जरिका (10) – Sankara asks us to ponder on our true nature

In this the 9th shloka, Sankara asks us to ponder on the Question of who we are and what our true purpose in life is and why we are so possessive in our relationships…

There is an old Buddhist story that is relevant to this shloka – “How to catch a monkey.”

Once upon a time, there lived a monkey who had made a large tree in a forest his home. As with all monkeys, he was extremely naughty and playful – He took great pleasure in teasing a hermit who sat under this tree. As soon as the hermit closed his eyes to meditate, he would throw a twig or an unripe fruit on his head, effectively breaking his concentration. This went on for several months. The hermit tried reasoning with the monkey but in vain. Finally, he decided to teach the monkey a lesson and set him on the right path.

He got an earthen pot with a long slender neck and filled the bottom of this pot with nuts, fruits, and other delicacies. He then placed the pot under the same tree that night and retired to his hermitage. As the sweet fragrance of the goodies reached the monkey’s nostrils he slithered down the tree and sneaked up to the pot, He then thrust his arm into the pot and grabbed a fistfull of the nuts. He now tried to pull his hand out but his fist would not make it through the slender neck of the pot. Now, all he had to do was to let go of the nuts and he would be free, but he wouldn’t or couldn’t. He struggled the whole night – the more he struggled and the more he panicked the worse it became.

Early the next day the hermit came up to the struggling monkey and knocked him on his head twice and told him in a stern voice – “Drop the nuts” The monkey did and the very next moment he could pull his hand free. He looked at the hermit and hung his head in shame. The hermit then told him “Look at yourself, see how your own mind plays tricks on you. Instead of wasting time making fun of others, go and ponder over who you truly are, where did you come from and why do you behave the way you do” The monkey walked away a completely changed individual.



In this shloka Sankara asks us to ponder and meditate deeply on the following questions:

Do you know who your wife truly is?
Do you know who your child truly is?
Do YOU know who YOU are?
Do YOU know where YOU came from? 

So many of us are caught up in our own expectations of how we want our spouses to behave with us, our parents and how our children should behave and what they should do with their lives. We are so possessive that we refuse to let go. This is true of parents, husbands, wives, friends, and children – neither do we grow, nor do we let the others grow…Like the monkey we hang on to expectations, perceived insults, and petty misunderstandings…

When we let go, we are truly free and so are they…

Sankara says, mull on these questions my brethren and you shall probably arrive at some clarity. In Sanatana Dharma, marriage and the relationship between husband and wife is a sacrament and not a paper contract. In its true meaning, it is the coming together of the Yin and Yang; the Shiva and Shakthi principles , where the one is incomplete without the other and the two complete each other – in the process helping each other to attain to their true nature. The underlying principle is that each is an unique individual who has to progress towards his/her spiritual goal while helping each other in the process. This is true of children too. To paraphrase Khalil Gibran (the Lebanese mystic/poet) – Children come through us to fulfill their own individual/unique missions and we should not aspire to make them into duplicates of ourselves or try to achieve through them what we could not on our own – What Khalil Gibran said a few decades ago and is often quoted; is in fact the very bedrock on which Sanatana Dharma rests for over 7,000 years…

Now to the shloka, its transliteration, and translation:

का ते कान्ता कस्ते पुत्रः
संसारोऽयमतीव विचित्रः ।
कस्य त्वं कः कुत आयात-
स्तत्त्वं चिन्तय तदिह भ्रातः
Ka-the Kantha Kasthe Putraha
Samsaro-ayam-athiva Vichitraha
Kasya-tvam-kaha Kutha Aayatha
Tathvam  Chinthaya Tadiha  Brathaha

का ते (Who Your) कान्ता (Spouse, Beloved) कस्ते (Who your) पुत्रः (Son)
संसारोऽयमतीव (This world verily) विचित्रः (Strange)
कस्य त्वं (Who are you?) कः कुत (You from where, Whence) आयात (Came)
स्तत्त्वं (True state, First principle, Essential nature) चिन्तय (Ponder, Worry) तदिह (That, Referring to…) भ्रातः (Brethren)

Who is your spouse; who your son/child? Oh! This samsara (mortal world) is indeed very strange. Well, Who are you? Where did you come from? What is your true state? These things, please ponder upon my brethren

Cluster of 12 blossoms – द्वादशमञ्जरिका (9) – Sankara on the importance of TIME

Sankara was not blessed with a long life. He attained Samadhi – merger with the universal consciousness when he was just 32. In that sense he was a man in a hurry. Perhaps, he had a premonition of his early death as can be seen from how much he managed to achieve in such a short lifespan.

It is said of Sankara: “By the age of 8, he was a master of all knowledge (vedas, upanishads, Brahma Sutras etc.); by 16 he completed his commentaries on the principal Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Brahma Sutra Bhashya besides the various poems and shlokas he composed; between 16 and 30 he traversed the length and breadth of the country on foot, debating and defeating the greatest minds of the times and establishing the pristine philosophy of Advaita (non-dualism); and for the last 2 years of his life he remained a “mouna muni” (silent sage) before dissolving into the eternal silence of the supreme consciousness…”

Astrologers who were called by his father Sivaguru to draw up Sankara’s horoscope predicted that he would be a shining beacon of Sanatana Dharma, a veritable comet that would streak across the Sanatana Dharma firmament, leaving behind a permanent glow. However, he would not cross the age of 16, and if he was lucky to cross that age, he would definitely not see a day beyond 32 – they were proved right.

Sankara also took to heart what his father once told him (Remember, Sankara’s father died when Sankara was just 3!):

“A wise man is one who completes even before midday what he is expected to finish by evening, and by today what he is expected to finish by tomorrow. However, also remember that everything has a proper time – For, what you sow out of season will never fructify and even that which is sown in season will fructify only when its time comes…”

The importance of time and not wasting it is particularly relevant in the present times when so much time is lost to mindless entertainment beamed into our homes 24/7 through TV and in traversing the virtual minefield of Social Media. Statistics show that young teens in India spend almost 9 hours a day “hooked” to their phones – Appalling to say the least.

Children need to be taught to drop anchor at a young age and spirituality, religion, meditation, prayer (all of these, some of these, or any one of these) are all aids to help anchor them to the right harbour in life:

If you are an atheist or agnostic teach your child to believe in her/himself. If you are a spiritualist tell your child that the universal spirit is always looking out for them and they can repose trust in it. If you are a religious person tell them that prayers will definitely be answered… Anchoring them in the right place will determine how they will sail on the sea of life…

In this shloka, Sankara rues the fact that people go through their entire lives without realizing the true purpose of life or their own purpose in life. It’s a simple shloka written almost 1,300 years ago, but so relevant even today…

The shloka, transliteration, and translation below:

तरुणस्तावत्तरुणीसक्तः ।
परेब्रह्मणि कोऽपि न सक्तः ॥
Pare-Brahmani K0-api Na Sakthaha

बालस्ताव (Childhood) त्क्रीडासक्तः (attached to, lost in play)
तरुणस्ताव (Youth) त्तरुणीसक्तः (attached to lover, lost in love)
वृद्धस्ताव (Old age) च्चिन्तासक्तः (Attached to regret and worry)
परेब्रह्मणि (Para-Brahman, Supreme Reality) कोऽपि (About) न (None) सक्तः (Attached, Worried)

Childhood is lost in play; youth in the arms of the sweetheart; Old age is lost in brooding and regret; Alas, is there no one to contemplate the supreme truth of the Atman?

When you say in jest “I am killing time” You are wrong – the reverse is true – it is TIME that kills us moment by moment as it pushes us towards the inevitable…

Cluster of 12 blossoms – द्वादशमञ्जरिका (8) – Sankara, The lizard brain & the question of wealth

The question of why we acquire wealth, why we hoard it, and want to pass it on to our next generation is an intriguing question, particularly when you consider that the greatest philosopher of Sanatana Dharma lived in the midst of wealth, was a king, fought wars, is often thought of as flirtatious and cunning, and involved himself in political intrigue – It must be obvious to all that I am talking about Krishna an enigma that defies conventional, logical explanations.

Surely Sankara, who has written commentaries on Krishna’s greatest work “The Bhagavad Gita” could not have meant that the acquisition of wealth is meaningless?

Then there is the example of King Janaka of Mithila who is considered a Raja Rishi a “Jnani” –  a realized person, a seer. He too was a busy king who ran his country, involved himself in the day-to-day running of the Kingdom, acquired wealth and even conducted a swayamvara for his daughter, Sita.

In this Shloka, Sankara seems to be posing 4 questions:

1. Why do we acquire and hoard wealth?
2. Why do we want to pass on our wealth to our next generation?
3. Why are we fearful of our future and of what might happen to us?
4. Why can’t we “live” in the present?

The answer lies in a study of the Science of “The lizard brain” in humans along with a qualified spiritual interpretation of this shloka. The “lizard brain” syndrome refers to the primitive part of the human brain that governs emotions like “Fear”, Feeding”, “Sex”, “Fight” and “Flight”. Humans, like all mammals have evolved from reptiles and this part of the reptilian brain has been retained as is during the course of evolution. It is useful for survival but at the same time it is essential that this part be controlled and regulated for humans to be able to progress beyond being just individualistic, competitive, successful survivors in a dog-eat-dog world. It is this part of the human brain that resists all attempts at developing good habits – For example, it is the part of the brain that tells us that it is OK for us to sleep a little longer and we can start exercising from tomorrow. It is also the part of the brain that keeps us in a constant cycle of fear, telling us that we need to be doing more, worry about the future, acquire and hoard, be selfish and all of those patterns of flawed human behaviour. All great achievers in any field of human endeavour have done so by quietening the constant chatter of this “lizard brain”. Quietening the lizard brain is also the first step of spiritual evolvement.

The second dimension is the spiritual interpretation – Krishna talks about this while discussing the qualities of the Stitha Prajna –  THE MAN OF STEADY WISDOM (link to earlier post). This is a quality that focuses on the process alone (Karma & Dharma) and not on the fruits thereof:

It doesn’t matter how much wealth you possess; what matters is how “possessed” are you by that wealth

Acquisition of wealth Per se is not wrong, it is the exclusive focus on this to the exclusion of everything else, combined with a constant fear of losing it, and a refusal to share even a portion of it with the needy that is a problem that Sankara seems to be referring to.

Therefore Sankara says that it is calamitous to be focused only on acquiring more and more wealth (for one can’t take it with us when one dies). He asks us to reflect on this truth daily. He further asks us to contemplate on whether there is an iota of happiness to be derived from this wealth? For, the wealthy man fears even his son who is simply waiting for the wealthy man to die so he can enjoy the riches – Isn’t this the reality everywhere, in all the three worlds?

The shloka, its transliteration, translation, and purport below:

अर्थमनर्थं भावय नित्यं
नास्तिततः सुखलेशः सत्यम् ।
पुत्रादपि धनभाजां भीतिः
सर्वत्रैषा विहिता रीतिः ॥
Artham-anartham Bhavaya Nityam
Nasti Tatah Sukelshaha Satyam
Putra-dapi Dhana-Bhajam Bhitihi
Sarvatraisha Vihitha Rithihi

अर्थ (Wealth, Riches, Property, Desire, Money) मनर्थं (Meaningless, Calamitous) भावय (Reflect, Demonstrates) नित्यं (Daily, Repeatedly, Eternal, Perpetual)
नास्ति (It is not, Non-existent) ततः (From that) सुखलेशः (Not an iota of, Not even a small bit of Happiness, Delight, Pleasure) सत्यम् (Truly)
पुत्रादपि (Son) धन (Wealth, Money, Riches) भाजां (Division, Share, Entitlement) भीतिः (Fear, Apprehension, Terror)
सर्वत्रैषा (Everywhere, In all the three worlds) विहिता (Prescribed, Settled) रीतिः (Way, Method)

Wealth and its acquisition is calamitous, meaningless (for it is not permanent, you can’t take it with you) – Reflect on this truth day after day. The wealthy man fears even his own son. This unfortunately is the way of life everywhere, in all the three worlds…